William Edward Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon مدُّ القَامُوس، معجم عربي إنجليزي لوليام إدوارد لَيْن

ا
ب
ت
ث
ج
ح
خ
د
ذ
ر
ز
س
ش
ص
ض
ط
ظ
ع
غ
ف
ق
ك
ل
م
ن
ه
و
ي
Book Home Page
الصفحة الرئيسية للكتاب
Number of entries in this book
عدد المواضيع في هذا الكتاب 4952
41. ادب1 42. ادر1 43. ادم1 44. ادو2 45. ادى1 46. اذ147. اذا1 48. اذر1 49. اذن1 50. اذى1 51. ار1 52. ارب1 53. ارث1 54. ارج2 55. ارخ2 56. ارز2 57. ارش1 58. ارض1 59. ارط1 60. ارف1 61. ارق2 62. ارك1 63. ارم1 64. ارى1 65. از1 66. ازب2 67. ازج1 68. ازر2 69. ازف1 70. ازق2 71. ازل1 72. ازم1 73. ازى1 74. اس1 75. اسب1 76. است3 77. استاذ1 78. استبرق4 79. اسد1 80. اسر2 81. اسطرلاب1 82. اسف1 83. اسفيداج2 84. اسك2 85. اسل1 86. اسم4 87. اسن1 88. اسو1 89. اسى1 90. اشب1 91. اشر2 92. اشف1 93. اشك1 94. اشن1 95. اصد1 96. اصر2 97. اصطبل3 98. اصطرلاب1 99. اصل3 100. اط1 101. اطر2 102. اطم2 103. اف1 104. افخ1 105. افق3 106. افك3 107. افل2 108. افه1 109. افيون1 110. اقحوان1 111. اقط3 112. اكد2 113. اكر3 114. اكف3 115. اكل2 116. اكم2 117. ال2 118. الا2 119. الب2 120. الت2 121. التُّرْكُمَانُ1 122. الد1 123. الف2 124. الق2 125. الك2 126. الم1 127. المس2 128. اله4 129. الو1 130. الى2 131. ام2 132. اما1 133. امت2 134. امد2 135. امر2 136. امس2 137. امل2 138. امن2 139. امه3 140. ان2 Prev. 100
«
Previous

اذ

»
Next

اذ



إِذْ a word denoting past time: (Lth, T, S, M, L, Mughnee, K:) it is a noun, (S, L, Mughnee, K,) indecl., with its last letter quiescent; and properly is prefixed to a proposition; (S, L, K;) as in جِئْتُكَ إِذْ قَامَ زَيدٌ [I came to thee when Zeyd stood], and إِذْ زَيْدٌ قَائِمٌ and إِذْ زَيْدٌ يقُومُ [When Zeyd was standing]. (S, L.) The proposition to which it is prefixed is either nominal, as in [the words of the Kur viii. 26,] وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ أَنْتُمْ قَلِيلٌ [And remember ye when ye were few]; or verbal, having the verb in the pret. as to the letter and as to the meaning, as in [the Kur ii. 28, &c.,] وَإِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [And when thy Lord said unto the angels]; or verbal with the verb in the pret. as to the meaning but not as to the letter, as in [the Kur ii. 121,] وَ إِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرٰهِيمُ القَوَاعِدَ [And when Abraham was rearing the foundations]; all three of which kinds are comprised in the Kur where it is said, [ix. 40,]
إِلَّا تَنْصُرُوهُ فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ إِذْ أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا ثَانِىَ اثْنَيْنِ إِذْ هُمَا فِى الغَارِ إِذْ يَقُولُ لِصَاحِبِهِ لَا تَحزَنْ إِنَّ اللّٰهَ مَعَنَا [If ye will not aid him, verily God aided him, when those who disbelieved expelled him, being the second of two, when they two were in the cave, when he was saying to his companion, Grieve not thou, for God is with us]. (Mughnee.) But sometimes one half of the proposition is suppressed, as in إِذْ ذَاكَ, [also written إِذَّاكَ,] meaning إِذْ ذَاكَ كَذٰلِكَ [When that was so], or إِذْ ذَاكَ كَائِنٌ [When that was, i. e. then, at that time]. (Mughnee.) And sometimes the whole of the proposition is suppressed, (M, Mughnee,) as being known, (Mughnee,) and tenween is substituted for it; the ذ receiving kesreh because of the occurrence of two quiescent letters together, (M, Mughnee,) namely the ذ and the tenween, (M,) and thus one says, يَوْمَئِذٍ; the kesreh of the ذ not being, as Akh holds it to be, the kesreh of declension, although اذ here occupies the place of a noun governed in the gen. case by another prefixed to it, (M, Mughnee,) for it still requires a proposition to be understood after it, (Mughnee,) and is held to be indecl. (M, Mughnee) by general consent, like كَمْ and مَنْ, (M,) as being composed of two letters. (Mughnee.) [J says,] when إِذْ is not prefixed to a proposition, it has tenween: (S:) and hence Aboo-Dhu-eyb says, (S, M,) نَهَيْتُكَ عَنْ طِلَابِكَ أُمَّ عَمْرٍو بِعَافِيَةٍ وَأَنْتَ إِذٍ صَحِيحُ [I forbade thy suing Umm-'Amr in health, thou being then sound]; (S, M, L, Mughnee, TA; [but in two copies of the S, for بِعَافِيَةٍ, I find بِعَاقِبَةٍ; and in the L it is without any point;]) in which [J says] the poet means حِينَئِذٍ, like as one says يَوْمَئذٍ and لَيْلَتَئِذٍ: (S:) and Fr says that some of the Arabs say, كَانَ كَذَا و كَذَا وَهُوَ إِذٍ صَبِىٌّ, meaning هُوَ إِذْ ذَاكَ صَبِىٌّ [Such and such things were, he being then a boy]. (T.) إِذِى also occurs for اذ [app. إِذٍ, but whether this or إِذْ is not clear in the MS. from which I take this]. (M.) When إِذٍ is adjoined to nouns signifying times, the Arabs join it therewith in writing, in certain instances: namely حِينَئِذٍ [At that time, or then], and يَوْمَئِذٍ

[In, or on, or at, that day], and لَيْلَتَئِذٍ [In, or on, or at, that night], and غَدَاتَئِذٍ [In, or on, that morning], and عَشِيَّتَئِذٍ [In, or on, that evening], and سَاعَتَئِذٍ [In that hour: or at that time; then], and عَامَئِذٍ [In that year], [and وَقْتَئِذٍ At that time; then]; but they did not say الآنَئِذٍ, because الآنَ denotes the nearest present time, except in the dial. of Hudheyl, in which it has been found to occur. (T.) When it is followed by a verb, or by a noun not having the article ال prefixed to it, or [rather] by any movent letter, the ذ of إِذْ is quieseent; but when it is followed by a noun with ال, [or by any ا,] the ذ is mejroorah, as in the saying, إِذِ القَوْمُ كَانُوا نَازِلِينَ بِكَاظِمَهْ [When the people, or company of men, were alighting, or taking up their abode, at Kádhimeh]. (T.) b2: In general, (Mughnee, K,) it is an adverbial noun denoting past time, (M, Mughnee, K,) when it is a noun denoting such time, (Mughnee, K,) as in وَ إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [explained above], (M,) and in فَقَدْ نَصَرَهُ اللّٰهُ إِذْ

أَخْرَجَهُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا [also explained above, and in other instances already mentioned]: (Mughnee, K:) in the former of which instances, AO says that it is redundant; (M, Mughnee;) but Aboo-Is-hák says that this is a bold assertion of his; (M;) [and IHsh says,] this assertion is of no account, and so is that of him who says that it here denotes certainty, like قَدْ: (Mughnee:) [J holds the opinion of AO on this point; for he says,] إِذْ is sometimes redundant, like إِذَا, as in the saying in the Kur [ii. 48], وَإِذْ وَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى, meaning وَوَاعَدْنَا مُوسَى [And We appointed a time with Moses; but instances of this kind are most probably elliptical: see the next sentence]. (S.) As a noun denoting past time, it is [said to be] also an objective complement of a verb, as in [the Kur vii. 84,] وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً [and remember ye when ye were few]: (Mughnee, K:) and generally in the commencements of narratives in the Kur, it may be an objective complement of أُذْكُرْ understood, as in وَ إِذْ قَالَ رَبُّكَ لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ [before cited], and the like. (Mughnee: but see the third of the sentences here following.) As such, it is [said to be] also a substitute for the objective complement of a verb, as in [the Kur xix. 16,] وَ اذْكُرْ فِى الْكِتَابِ مَرْيَمَ إِذِ انْتَبَذَتْ [and mention thou, or remember thou, in the Scripture, Mary, the time when she withdrew aside], where اذ is a substitute of implication for مريم. (Mughnee, K: but see the second of the sentences here following.) As such, it also has prefixed to it a noun of time, of such a kind that it is without need thereof, as in يَوْمَئِذٍ, or not of such a kind that it is without need thereof, as in [the Kur iii. 6,] بَعْدَ إِذْ هَدَيْتَنَا [After the time when Thou hast directed us aright]. (Mughnee, K.) And it is generally asserted, that it never occurs otherwise than as an adverbial noun, or as having a noun prefixed to it; that in the like of وَاذْكُرُوا إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً, it is an adverbial noun relating to an objective complement suppressed, i. e. وَ اذْكُرُوا نِعْمَةَ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلاً [And remember ye the grace of God towards you when ye were few]; and in the like of إِذِ انْتَبَذَتْ, that it is an adverbial noun relating to a suppressed prefixed noun to [that which becomes by the suppression] the objective complement of a verb, i. e. [in this instance]

وَ اذْكُرْ قِصَّةَ مَرْيَمَ [And mention thou, or remember thou, the case of Mary]: and this assertion is strengthened by the express mention of the [proper] objective complement in [the Kur iii. 98,] وَ اذْكُروا نِعْمَةَ اللّٰهِ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذْ كُنْتُمْ أَعْدَآءً [And remember ye the grace of God towards you when ye were enemies]. (Mughnee.) b3: Also, (Mughnee, K,) accord. to some, (T, Mughnee,) it is used (T, Mughnee, K) as a noun (Mughnee, K) to indicate future time, (T, Mughnee, K,) and إِذَا is said to denote past time, (T,) [i. e.] each of these occurs in the place of the other; (TA;) the former being used to indicate future time in the Kur [xxxiv. 50], where it is said, وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ فَزِعُوا [And couldst thou see the time when they shall be terrified], meaning the day of resurrection; this usage being allowable, says Fr, only because the proposition is like one expressing a positive fact, since there is no doubt of the coming of that day; (T;) and in [the Kur xcix. 4,] يَوْمَئِذٍ تُحَدِّثُ أَخْبَارَهَا [On that day, she (the earth) shall tell her tidings]; (Mughnee, K;) this being generally regarded as similar to the expression of a future event which must necessarily happen as though it had already happened; but it may be urged in favour of those who hold a different opinion that it is said in the Kur [xl. 72 and 73], فَسَوْفَ يَعْلَمُونَ إِذِ الأَغلَالُ فِى

أَعْنَاقِهِمْ [They shall hereafter know, when the collars shall be on their necks]; for يعلمون is a future as to the letter and the meaning because of its having سوف conjoined with it, and it governs اذ, which is therefore in the place of إِذَا. (Mughnee.) b4: It also indicates a cause, as in [the Kur xliii. 38,] لَنْ يَنْفَعَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ إِذْ ظَلَمْتُمْ [It will not profit you this day, since, or because, ye have acted wrongfully], (Mughnee, K,) i. e. because of your having acted wrongfully in the sublunary state of existence; (Bd, Mughnee;) but it is disputed whether it be in this instance a particle in the place of the causative ل, or an adverbial noun: (Mughnee:) Aboo-'Alee seems to hold that اذ ظلمتم [as meaning when ye have acted wrongfully] is a substitute for, or a kind of repetition of, اليوم; an event happening in the present world being spoken of as though it happened in the world to come because the latter immediately follows the former. (IJ, M, L, Mughnee.) Yousay also, الحَمْدُ لِلّٰهِ إِذْ جِئْتَ [Praise be to God because, or that, thou camest, or hast come]. (S in art. جيأ.) b5: It is also used to denote one's experiencing the occurrence of a thing when he is in a particular state; (S, L;) or to denote a thing's happening suddenly, or unexpectedly; (S, Mughnee, K;) like إِذَا; (S;) and in this case is only followed by a verb expressing an event as a positive fact, (S, L,) and occurs after بَيْنَا and بَيْنَمَا; (Mughnee, K;) as [in exs. voce بَيْنَ; and] in بَيْنَمَا أَنَا كَذَا إِذْ جَآءَ زَيْدٌ [While I was thus, or in this state, lo, or behold, or there, or then, at that time, (accord. to different authorities, as will be seen below,) Zeyd came]; (S, L;) and as in the saying of a poet, اِسْتَقْدِرِ اللّٰهَ خَيْراً وَارْضَيَنَّ بِهِ فَبَيْنَمَاالْعُسْرُ إِذ دَارَتْ مَيَاسِيرُ [Beg thou God to appoint for thee good, and do thou be content therewith; for while there has been difficulty, lo, easy circumstances have come about]: (Mughnee, K: *) but it is disputed whether it be [in this case] an adverbial noun of place, (Mughnee, K,) as Zj and AHei hold; (TA;) or of time, (Mughnee, K,) as Mbr holds; (TA;) or a particle denoting the sudden, or unexpected, occurrence of a thing, (Mughnee, K,) as IB and Ibn-Málik hold; (TA;) or a corroborative, i. e. [grammatically] redundant, particle, (Mughnee, K,) an opinion which Ibn-Ya'eesh holds, and to which Er-Radee inclines. (TA.) b6: It is also a conditional particle, but only used as such coupled with ما, (S, L, Mughnee, *) and causes two aor. sts to assume the mejzoom form, (Mughnee,) as when you say, إِذْمَا تَأْتِنِى آتِكَ [When, or whenever, thou shalt come to me, I will come to thee], like as you say, إِنْ تأْتِنِى وَقْتًا

آتِكَ [If thou come to me at some, or any, time, I will come to thee]; and you say also إِذْمَا أَتَيْتَ [like as you say, إِنْ أَتَيْتَ, using the pret. in the sense of the future]: (S, L:) it is a particle accord. to Sb, used in the manner of the conditional إِنْ; but it is an adverbial noun accord. to Mbr and Ibn-Es-Sarráj and El-Fárisee. (Mughnee.) b7: [What I have translated from the S, L, K, and TA, in this art., is mostly from فصل الهمزة of باب الذال : the rest, from باب الالف اللينّة.]
You are viewing Lisaan.net in filtered mode: only posts belonging to William Edward Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon مدُّ القَامُوس، معجم عربي إنجليزي لوليام إدوارد لَيْن are being displayed.