William Edward Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon مدُّ القَامُوس، معجم عربي إنجليزي لوليام إدوارد لَيْن

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الصفحة الرئيسية للكتاب
Number of entries in this book
عدد المواضيع في هذا الكتاب 4952
2746. عرص15 2747. عرصف6 2748. عرض23 2749. عرضن4 2750. عرطب5 2751. عرف212752. عرفج10 2753. عرفط7 2754. عرق21 2755. عرقب14 2756. عرك13 2757. عرم21 2758. عرمض7 2759. عرن18 2760. عرو11 2761. عرى4 2762. عز8 2763. عزب19 2764. عزر20 2765. عزف18 2766. عزق14 2767. عزل20 2768. عزم18 2769. عزو11 2770. عزى3 2771. عس6 2772. عسب19 2773. عسج10 2774. عسجد7 2775. عسر20 2776. عسف19 2777. عسكر11 2778. عسل18 2779. عسلج8 2780. عسم15 2781. عسو8 2782. عسى4 2783. عش6 2784. عشب17 2785. عشر21 2786. عشرق7 2787. عشق13 2788. عشو11 2789. عص5 2790. عصب21 2791. عصد14 2792. عصر22 2793. عصف18 2794. عصفر14 2795. عصل13 2796. عصم19 2797. عصو9 2798. عصى3 2799. عض6 2800. عضب15 2801. عضد21 2802. عضرط8 2803. عضرفط5 2804. عضل20 2805. عضم8 2806. عضه18 2807. عضو9 2808. عط6 2809. عطب20 2810. عطد6 2811. عطر15 2812. عطرد8 2813. عطس16 2814. عطش17 2815. عطف20 2816. عطل20 2817. عطن17 2818. عطو11 2819. عظل13 2820. عظلم8 2821. عظم20 2822. عظو5 2823. عف6 2824. عفج10 2825. عفر21 2826. عفص16 2827. عفل12 2828. عفن16 2829. عفو11 2830. عفى2 2831. عق5 2832. عقب27 2833. عقد21 2834. عقر21 2835. عقرب12 2836. عقص17 2837. عقف14 2838. عقفر7 2839. عقل25 2840. عقم20 2841. عقو7 2842. عك7 2843. عكب11 2844. عكد12 2845. عكر18 Prev. 100




1 عَرَفَهُ, (S, O, Msb, K, &c.,) aor. عَرِفَ, (O, K,) inf. n. مَعْرِفَةٌ (S, O, K) and عِرْفَانٌ (S, O, Msb, K) and عِرِفَّانٌ (K) and عِرْفَةٌ, (Msb, K,) or مَعْرِفَةٌ is a simple subst., (Msb,) He knew it; he had cognition of it; or he was, or became, acquainted with it; syn. عَلِمَهُ: (K:) or he knew it (عَلِمَهُ) by means of any of the five senses; (Msb;) [and also, by mental perception:] Er-Rághib says, المَعْرِفَةُ is the perceiving a thing by reflection, and by consideration of the effect thereof [upon the mind or sense], so that it has a more special meaning than العِلْمُ, and its contr. is الإِنْكَارُ; and one says, فُلَانٌ يَعْرِفُ اللّٰهَ وَرَسُولَهُ [Such a one knows God and his apostle], but one does not say يَعْلَمُ اللّٰهَ, making the verb [thus] to have a single objective complement, since man's مَعْرِفَة [or knowledge] of God is [the result of] the consideration of his effects, without the perception of his essence; and one says, اَللّٰهُ يَعْلَمُ كَذَا, but not يَعْرِفُ كذا, since المَعْرِفَةُ is used in relation to عِلْم [or knowledge] which is defective, to which one attains by reflection: it is from عَرَفْتُهُ meaning I found, or experienced, its عَرْف i. e. odour; or as meaning I attained its عُرْف i. e. limit: (TA:) it is said in the B that المَعْرِفَةُ differs from العِلْمُ, in meaning, in several ways: the former concerns the thing itself [which is its object;] whereas the latter concerns the states, or conditions, or qualities, thereof: also the former generally denotes the perceiving a thing as a thing that has been absent from the mind, thus differing from the latter; therefore the contr. of the former is الإِنْكَارُ, and the contr. of the latter is الجَهْلُ; and the former is the knowing a thing itself as distinguished from other things; whereas the latter concerns a thing collectively with other things: (TA in art. علم:) and sometimes they put ↓ اعترف in the place of عَرَفَ; (S, O;) [i. e.] اعترف الشَّىْءَ signifies عَرَفَهُ: (Mgh, K:) and so, sometimes, does ↓ استعرفُه. (Har p. 486.) b2: And عَرَفَ is also used in the place of اعترف [in the first of the senses assigned to the latter below]. (S, O.) See the latter verb, in four places. b3: عَرَفَهُ also signifies He requited him. (O, K.) Ks read, (O, K,) and so five others, (Az, TA,) in the Kur [lxvi. 3], (O,) عَرَفَ بَعْضَهُ, meaning He requited her, namely, Hafsah, for part [thereof, i. e.] of what she had done: (Fr, O, K:) and he did so indeed by divorcing her: (Fr, TA:) or it means he acknowledged part thereof: (K:) but others read بَعْضَهُ ↓ عَرَّفَ, which, likewise, has the former of the two meanings expl. above: (Bd:) or this means he told Hafsah part thereof. (Fr, O, Bd, * TA. [See also 2.]) As first expl. above, this phrase is like the saying to him who does good or who does evil, أَنَا أَعْرِفُ لأَهْلِ الإِحْسَانِ وَأَعْرِفُ لِأَهْلِ الإِسَآءَةِ, (O,) or لِلْمُحْسِنِ وَالمُسِىْءِ, (K,) [I know how to requite the doer of good and the doer of evil,] i. e. the case of the doer of good and that of the doer of evil are not hidden from me nor is the suitable requital of him. (O, K.) لَأَعْرِفَنَّكَهَا عَنْدَ رَسُولِ اللّٰهِ occurs in a trad., meaning I will assuredly requite thee for it in the presence of the Apostle of God so that he shall know thy evil-doing: and is used in threatening. (TA.) A2: عَرَفَ الفَرَسَ, (S, O, K,) aor. عَرِفَ, (O,) inf. n. عَرْفٌ, (O, K,) He clipped the عُرْف [i. e. mane] of the horse. (S, O, K.) A3: عَرَفْتُ عَلَى القَوْمِ, aor. عَرُفَ, inf. n. عِرَافَةٌ, I was, or became, عَرِيف over the people, or party; i. e., manager, or orderer, of their affairs; as also عَرُفْتُ عَلَيْهِمْ: (Msb:) or عَرُفَ, inf. n. عَرَاعَةٌ, signifies he was, or became, an عَرِيف; (S, O, K;) as also عَرَفَ, aor. عَرِفَ; (K;) i. e., a نَقِيب: (S, O:) and when you mean that he acted as an عَرِيف, you say, عَرَفَ عَلَيْنَا سِنِينَ, aor. عَرُفَ, inf. n. عِرَافَةٌ, [he acted over us as an عريف during some years,] like كَتَبَ, aor. يَكْتُبُ, inf. n. كِتَابَةٌ. (S, O, K. *) A4: عَرَفَ لِلْأَمْرِ, aor. عَرِفَ, He was patient in relation to the affair, or event; (K;) as also ↓ اعترف, (O, K,) as some say. (O.) And عُرِفَ عِنْدَ المُصِيبَةِ He was patient on the occasion of the affliction, or misfortune. (TA.) b2: And عَرَفَ He was, or became, submissive, or tractable; (Ibn-'Abbád, O, TA;) and so ↓ اعترف, (IAar, O, K,) said of a man, (IAar, O,) and of a beast that one rides. (O.) A5: عَرُفَ, inf. n. عَرَافَةٌ, He (a man) was, or became, pleasant, or sweet, in his odour. (TA.) And ↓ اعرف, said of food, It was sweet in its عَرْف, i. e. odour. (TA.) b2: عَرِفَ He (a man, TA) made much use of perfume. (IAar, O, K.) b3: And He relinquished, or abstained from, perfume. (IAar, O.) A6: عُرِفَ, (S, O, K,) inf. n. عَرْفٌ, (K, TA,) accord. to one or more of the copies of the K عِرْفَانٌ, (TA,) He (a man, S, O) had a purulent pustule, termed عَرْفَة, come forth in the whiteness [or palm] of his hand. (S, O, K.) 2 تَعْرِيفٌ signifies The making to know; syn. إِعْلَامٌ: (S, O, K, TA:) [or rather it has a more restricted signification than the latter word, as is indicated in the preceding paragraph:] and in this sense its verb may have two objective complements: one says, عرّفهُ الأَمْرَ He made him to know the affair, or case; syn. أَعْلَمَهُ إِيَّاهُ: [or he acquainted him with it; or told him of it:] and عرّفهُ بَيْتَهُ He made him to know, or acquainted him with, the place of his house, or tent; syn. أَعْلَمَهُ بِمَكَانِهِ: (TA:) [and] one says عَرَّفْتُهُ بِهِ, meaning I made him to know it by means of any of the five senses [or by mental perception; as also عَرَّفْتُهُ إِيَّاهُ]. (Msb.) See also 1, former half. And see 4. b2: Also The making known; contr. of تَنْكِيرٌ. (O, K.) عَرَّفَ بَعْضَهُ, in the Kur [lxvi. 3], has been expl. as meaning He made known part thereof. (TA. [For other explanations, see 1.]) And عَرَّفْتُهُ بِزَيْدٍ means I made him known by the name of Zeyd; like the phrase سَمَّيْتُهُ بِزَيْدٍ. (Sb, TA.) b3: [Hence, The explaining a term: and an explanation thereof: thus used, its pl. is تَعْرِيفَاتٌ: it has a less restricted meaning than حَدٌّ, which signifies the “ defining,” and “ a definition. ” b4: And The making a noun, or a nominal proposition, determinate. b5: Hence also,] The crying a stray-beast, or a beast or some other thing that has been lost; (S, TA;) the mentioning it [and describing it] and seeking to find him who had knowledge of it. (TA.) b6: And [hence likewise,] عرّفهُ بِذَنْبِهِ He branded him, or stigmatized him, with his misdeed. (TA.) A2: Also The rendering [a thing] fragrant; (S, O, * K, * TA;) from العَرْفُ: (S:) and the adorning [it], decorating [it], or embellishing [it]. (TA.) عَرَّفَهَا لَهُمْ, in the Kur [xlvii. 7], is said to mean He hath rendered it fragrant [i. e. Paradise (الجَنَّة)] for them: (S, O:) or it means He hath described it to them so that, when they enter it, they shall know it by that description, or so that they shall know their places of abode therein: (O:) or He hath described it to them, and made them desirous of it: (Er-Rághib, TA:) [and the like is said by Bd:] or He hath defined it for them so that there shall be for every one a distinct paradise. (Bd.) b2: One says also, عرّف رَأْسَهُ بِالدُّهْنِ He moistened the hair of his head abundantly with oil, or with the oil; syn. رَوَّاهُ. (TA.) b3: And عرّف طَعَامَهُ He made his food to have much seasoning, or condiment. (TA.) A3: Also The halting [of the pilgrims] at 'Arafát. (S, O, K.) You say, عرّفوا, (S, Mgh, O, Msb,) inf. n. as above, They halted at 'Arafát; (Mgh, Msb;) or they were present at 'Arafát; (S, O.) And [hence], in a postclassical sense, They imitated the people of 'Arafát, in some other place, by going forth to the desert and there praying, and humbling themselves, or offering earnest supplication; (Mgh;) or by assembling in their mosques to pray and to beg forgiveness: (Har p. 672:) the first who did this was Ibn-'Abbás, at El-Basrah. (Mgh, and Har ubi suprá.) And عرّف بِالهَدْىِ He brought the animal for sacrifice to 'Arafát. (Mgh.) A4: عرّف الشَّرَّ بَيْنَهُمْ He excited evil, or mischief, between them, or among them: the verb in this phrase being formed by permutation from أَ َّ ثَ. (Yaakoob, TA.) 4 اعرف فُلَانًا He told such a one of his misdeed, then forgave him; and so ↓ عرّفهُ. (TA.) A2: اعرف (said of a horse, S, O) He had a long عُرْف [or mane]. (S, O, K.) A3: See also 1, near the end.5 تعرّف It was, or became, known. (Har p. 6.) b2: And تعرّف إِلَيْهِ He made himself known to him; (TA;) [and so ↓ استعرف; for] you say, أَتَيْتُ مُتَنَكِّرًا ثُمَّ اسْتَعْرَفْتُ i. e. [I came disguising myself, or assuming an unknown appearance, then] I made known who I was: (L:) and اِئْتِ فُلَانًا فَاسْتَعْرِفْ إِلَيْهِ حَتَّى يَعْرِفَكَ [Come thou to such a one and make thyself known to him, that he may know thee]. (S, O, K. *) [See also 8.] b3: [Hence,] one says, تعرّف إِلَى اللّٰهِ بِالعِبَادَاتِ وَالأَدْعِيَةِ [He made himself known to God by religious services and prayers]. (Er-Rághib, TA.) And تَعَرَّفْ إِلَى

اللّٰهِ فِى الرَّخَآءِ يَعْرِفْكَ فِى الشِّدَّةَ, occurring in a saying of the Prophet to Ibn-'Abbás, [may be rendered Make thyself known to God by obedience in ampleness of circumstances, then He will acknowledge thee in straitness: or] means render thou obedience to God [&c., then] He will requite thee [&c.]. (O.) A2: تعرّفهُ [He acquainted himself, or made himself acquainted, with it, or him; informed himself of it; learned it; and discovered it: often used in these senses: for an instance of the last, see تَفَرَّسَ: it is similar to تَعَلَّمَهُ, but more restricted in meaning. b2: And] He sought the knowledge of it: (Har p. 6:) [or he did so leisurely, or repeatedly, and effectually:] you say, تَعَرَّفْتُ مَا عِنْدَ فُلَانٍ I sought leisurely, or repeatedly, after the knowledge of what such a one possessed until I knew it. (S, O, K. *) b3: And تعرّفهُ المَكَانَ, and فِى المَكَانِ, He looked at it, endeavouring to obtain a clear knowledge thereof, in the place; syn. تَأَمَّلَهُ بِهِ. (TA.) A3: [تَعَرُّفٌ is also expl. in the KL by the Pers. words بعرف كارى كردن, app. meaning The acting with عُرْف i. e. goodness, &c.: but Golius has hence rendered the verb “ convenienter opus fecit. ”]6 تعارفوا They knew, or were acquainted with, one another. (S, O, K.) b2: And i. q. تَفَاخَرُوا [i. e. They vied, competed, or contended for superiority, in glorying, or boasting, or in glory, &c.; or simply they vied, one with another]: it occurs in a trad., or, as some relate it, with ز; and both are expl. as having this meaning. (TA.) 8 اعترف بِهِ He acknowledged it, or confessed it, (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K,) namely, a misdeed, (S, O,) or a thing; (Mgh, Msb;) and so به ↓ عَرَفَ and لَهُ, namely, his misdeed [&c.]; (K;) [for] sometimes they put عَرَفَ in the place of اعترف; (O;) and so ↓ عَرَفَهُ: (Ksh and Bd and Jel in xvi. 85:) [الإِحْسَانِ ↓ عِرْفَانُ (occurring in the K voce شُكْرٌ &c.) means The acknowledgment, or confession, of beneficence; thankfulness, or gratitude:] and one says, لأَِحَدٍ يَصْرَعُنِى ↓ مَا أَعْرِفُ (S, O, TA) i. e. ما أَعْتَرِفُ, (S, O,) meaning I do not acknowledge [any one that will throw me down]: this was said by an Arab of the desert. (TA.) b2: اعترف إِلَىَّ He acquainted me with his name and condition. (K.) And اعترف لَهُ He described himself to him in such a manner as that he would certify himself of him thereby. (TA.) [See also 5.]

b3: اعترف also signifies He described a thing that had been picked up, and a stray-beast, in such a manner as that he would be known to be its owner. (TA.) b4: And you say, اِعْتَرَفْتُ القَوْمَ, (S, O,) or فُلَانًا, (K,) I asked the people, or party, (S, O,) or such a one, (K,) respecting a subject of information, in order that I might know it. (S, O, K.) b5: See also 1, former half.

A2: And see 1, last quarter, in two places.10 استعرف [He sought, or desired, knowledge; or asked if any had knowledge; of a person or thing: a meaning clearly shown in the M by an explanation of a verse cited in art. بلو, conj. 8, q. v.]. b2: استعرف إِلَيْهِ: see 5. Also He mentioned his relationship, lineage, or genealogy, to him. (TA.) b3: استعرفهُ: see 1, former half.12 اِعْرَوْرَفَ He (a horse, TA) had a mane (عُرْف). (S, O, TA.) b2: اعرورف الفَرَسَ He (a man, O) mounted upon the mane (عُرْف) of the horse. (O, K. [In the CK, والفَرَسُ عَلا عُرْفُهُ is erroneously put for وَالفَرَسَ عَلَا عَلَى عُرْفِهِ.]) b3: And اعرورف (said of a man, K) (assumed tropical:) He rose upon the أَعْرَاف [pl. of عُرْفٌ, and app. here meaning the wall between Paradise and Hell: (see the Kur vii. 44:) probably used in this sense in a trad.]. (Ibn-'Abbád, O, K.) b4: Said of the sea, (tropical:) Its waves became high, (S, O, K, TA,) like the عُرْف [or mane]: and in like manner said of the torrent, (tropical:) It became heapy and high. (TA.) b5: Said of blood, (assumed tropical:) It had froth (O, K) like the عُرْف [or mane]. (O.) b6: Said of palm-trees (نَخْل), (tropical:) They became dense, and luxuriant, or abundant, or thickly intermixed, like the عُرْف [or mane] of the hyena. (O, K, TA.) b7: And, said of a man, (tropical:) He prepared himself for evil, or mischief, (S, O, K, TA,) and raised his head, or stretched forth his neck, for that purpose. (TA.) [See also 12 in art. عزف.]

عَرْفٌ An odour, whether fragrant or fetid, (S, O, K, TA,) in most instances the former, (K, TA,) as when it is used in relation to Paradise: (TA:) and ↓ عَرْفَةٌ signifies [the same, i. e.] رِيحٌ (K, TK) and رَائِحَةٌ. (TK.) One says, ما أَطْيَبَ عَرْفَهُ [How fragrant is its odour!]. (S, O.) and لَا يَعْجِزُ مَسْكُ السَّوْءِ عَنْ عَرْفِ السَّوْءِ [The bad hide will not lack the fetid odour]; (S, O, K;) a prov.; (S, O;) applied to the low, ignoble, mean, or sordid, who will not cease from his evil doing; he being likened to the hide that is not fit for being tanned; (O, K;) wherefore it is cast aside, and becomes fetid. (O.) And some read, in the Kur [lxxvii. 1], وَالْمُرْسَلَاتِ عَرْفًا, [as meaning By the winds that are sent forth with fragrance,] instead of عُرْفًا. (TA.) A2: Also A certain plant: or the ثُمَام [or panic grass]: (K:) or a certain plant, not of the [kind called] حَمْض, nor of the [kind called] عِضَاه; (Ibn-'Abbád, O, L, K;) of the [kind called] ثُمَام. (Ibn-'Abbád, O, L.) عُرْفٌ [Acknowledgment, or confession;] a subst. from الاِعْتِرَافُ, (S, O, K, TA,) as meaning الإِقْرَارُ. (TA.) Hence, (S, O,) you say, (K,) لَهُ عَلَىَّ أَلْفٌ عُرْفًا, meaning اِعْتِرَافًا [i. e. A thousand is due to him on my part by acknowlegment, or confession]; (S, O, * K;) the last word being a corroborative. (S, O.) b2: Also i. q. ↓ مَعْرُوفٌ; (S, O, Msb, K;) as also ↓ عَارِفَةٌ, (S, O, K,) of which the pl. is عَوَارِفُ; (O, K;) عُرْفٌ being contr. of نُكْرٌ, (S, O, K,) and ↓ مَعْرُوفٌ being contr. of مُنْكَرٌ [as syn. with نُكْرٌ]; (S, Mgh, O, K;) i. e. Goodness, or a good quality or action; and gentleness, or lenity; and beneficence, [favour, kindness, or bounty,] or a benefit, a benefaction, or an act of beneficence [or favour or kindness]: (Msb:) عُرْفٌ is also expl. as signifying liberality, or bounty; (K, TA;) and so ↓ عُرُفٌ, which is a dial. var. thereof: (TA:) and a thing liberally, or freely, bestowed; or given: (K:) and ↓ مَعْرُوفٌ is expl. as signifying liberality, or bounty, when it is with moderation, or with a right and just aim: [and sometimes it means simply moderation:] and sincere, or honest, advice or counsel or action: and good fellowship with one's family and with others of mankind: it is an epithet in which the quality of a subst. predominates: (TA:) and signifies any action, or deed, of which the goodness is known by reason and by the law; and مُنْكَرٌ signifies the contr. thereof. (Er-Rághib, TA.) It is said in the Kur [vii. 198], وَأْمُرْ بِالْعُرْفِ, (O,) meaning [And enjoin thou goodness, &c., or] what is deemed good, or approved, of actions. (Bd.) And you say, أَوْلَاهُ عُرْفًا, (S, O,) or ↓ عَارِفَةً, (TA,) meaning ↓ مَعْرُوفًا [i. e. He did to him, or conferred upon him, a benefit, &c.]. (S, O, TA.) وَلِلْمُطَلَّقَاتِ

↓ مَتَاعٌ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ [in the Kur ii. 242] means [and for the divorced women there shall be a provision of necessaries] with moderation, or right and just aim, and beneficence. (TA.) And ↓ قَوْلٌ مَعْرُوفٌ وَمَغْفِرَةٌ خَيْرٌ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ يَتْبَعُهَا أَذًى [in the same, ii. 265,] means Refusal with pleasing [or gracious] speech, (Bd, Jel, TA,) and prayer [expressed to the beggar, that God may sustain him,] (TA,) and forgiveness granted to the beggar for his importunity (Bd, Jel) or obtained by such refusal from God or from the beggar, (Bd,) are better than an alms which annoyance follows (TA) by reproach for a benefit conferred and for begging. (Jel.) And مَنْ كَانَ فَقِيرًا فَلْيَأْكُلْ

↓ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ [in the same, iv. 6,] means [And such as is poor, let him take for himself (lit. eat)] according to what is approved by reason and by the law, (TA,) or according to his need (Bd) and the recompense of his labour. (Bd, Jel.) b3: [العُرْفُ, in lexicology, signifies The commonly-known, commonly-received, or common conventional, language; common parlance, or common usage: mostly meaning that of a whole people; in which case, the epithet العَامُّ is sometimes added: but often meaning that of a particular class; as, for instance, of the lawyers. Hence the terms حَقِيقَةٌ عُرْفًا and مَجَازٌ عُرْفًا, expl. in arts. حق and جوز.

See also مُتَعَارَفٌ: and see عَادَةٌ.]

A2: Also The عُرْف of the horse; (S, O;) [i. e. the mane;] the hair (Mgh, Msb, K) that grows on the ridge (Msb) of the neck of the horse (Mgh, Msb, K) or similar beast; (Msb;) as also ↓ عُرُفٌ: (K:) [see also مَعْرَفَةٌ:] or the part, of the neck, which is the place of growth of the hair: [see again مَعْرَفَةٌ:] and the part, of the neck [of a bird], which is the place of growth of the feathers: (TA:) [or the feathers themselves of the neck; used in this sense in the K and TA in art. برل, as is shown by the context therein:] and the [comb or] elongated piece of flesh on the upper part of the head of a cock; to which the بَظْر of a girl is likened: (Msb:) pl. أَعْرَافٌ [properly a pl. of pauc.] (O, TA) and عُرُوفٌ. (TA.) As used it in relation to a man, explaining the phrase جَآءَ فُلَانٌ مُبْرَثِلًّا لِلشَّرِّ as meaning نَافِشًا عُرْفَهُ [i. e. (assumed tropical:) Such a one came as though ruffling the feathers of his neck to do evil, or mischief]. (TA.) And [hence] it is said in a trad., جَاؤُوا كَأَنَّهُمْ عُرُفٌ (assumed tropical:) [They came as though they were a mane], meaning, following one another. (TA.) And one says, جَآء القَوْمُ عُرْفًا عُرْفًا (assumed tropical:) [The people, or party, came] one after another: like the saying, طَارَ القَطَا عُرْفًا (assumed tropical:) [The sand-grouse flew] one after another. (K.) And hence, وَالْمُرْسَلَاتِ عُرْفًا, (S, O, K,) in the Kur [lxxvii. 1], a metaphorical phrase, from the عُرْف of the horse, meaning (tropical:) [By the angels, or the winds, that are sent forth] consecutively, like [the several portions of] the عُرْف [or mane] of the horse: (S, O:) or the meaning is, sent forth بِالْمَعْرُوفِ, (S, O, K, TA,) i. e. with beneficence, or benefit: (TA:) [for further explanations, see the expositions of Z and Bd or others: and see also art. رسل:] some read عَرْفًا [expl. in the next preceding paragraph]. (TA.) b2: [Hence also,] (tropical:) The waves of the sea. (K, TA.) b3: And (assumed tropical:) Elevated sand; as also ↓ عُرُفٌ and ↓ عُرْفَةٌ: pl. (of the last, TA) عُرَفٌ and (of the first, TA) أَعْرَافٌ: (S, O, K:) and all signify likewise (assumed tropical:) an elevated place: (K:) and the first, (assumed tropical:) the elevated, or overtopping, back of a portion of sand, (K, TA,) and of a mountain, and of anything high: and (assumed tropical:) an elevated portion of the earth or ground: and [the pl.] أَعْرَافٌ (assumed tropical:) the حَرْث [meaning land ploughed, or prepared, for sowing] that is upon the [channels for irrigation that are called] فُلْجَان [pl. of فَلَجٌ] and قَوَائِد [pl. of قَائِدٌ]. (TA.) b4: [The pl.] الأَعْرَافُ, (S, O, K,) mentioned in the Kur [vii. 44 and 46], (S, O,) is applied to (assumed tropical:) A wall between Paradise and Hell: (S, O, K:) so it is said: (S, O:) or the upper parts of the wall: or by عَلَى الأَعْرَافِ may be there meant عَلَى مَعْرِفَةِ أَهْلِ الجَنَّةِ وَأَهْلِ النَّارِ [i. e., app., and possessing knowledge of the people of Paradise and of the people of Hell: for it seems that مُحْتَوُونَ, or the like, is to be understood before على]. (Zj, TA.) [And hence it is the name of The Seventh Chapter of the Kur-án.] By

أَصْحَابُ الأَعْرَافِ [The occupants of the اعراف], there mentioned, are said to be meant persons whose good and evil works have been equal, so that they shall not have merited Paradise by the former nor Hell by the latter: or prophets: or angels. (Zj, TA.) b5: See also عُرْفَةٌ. b6: [The pl.]

أَعْرَافٌ also signifies (tropical:) The higher, or highest, (K, TA,) and first, or foremost, (TA,) of winds; (K, TA;) and likewise of clouds, and of mists. (TA.) b7: And عُرْفٌ signifies also, (As, O, K,) in the speech of the people of El-Bahreyn, (As, O,) A species [or variety] of palm-trees; (As, O, K;) and so [the pl.] أَعْرَافٌ (O, K) is expl. by IDrd: (O:) or when they first yield fruit, or edible fruit, or ripe fruit; (K, TA;) or when they attain to doing so: (TA:) or a [sort of] palmtree in El-Bahreyn, also called بُرْشُوم; (K, TA;) but this is what is meant by As and IDrd. (TA.) b8: And The tree of the أُتْرُجّ [i. e. citrus medica, or citron]. (K.) A3: Also pl. of عَرُوفٌ: b2: and of أَعْرَفُ and عَرْفَآءُ. (K.) عِرْفٌ, with kesr, is from the saying, مَا عَرَفَ عِرْفِى إِلَّا بِأَخَرَةٍ, (S, O,) which means He did not know me save at the last, or lastly, or latterly. (S, O, K.) A2: And it signifies Patience. (IAar, O, K.) A poet says, (namely Aboo-Dahbal ElJumahee, TA,) قُلْ لِابْنِ قَيْسٍ أَخِى الرُّقَيَّاتِ مَا أَحْسَنَ العِرْفَ فِى المُصِيبَاتِ [Say thou to the son of Keys, the brother of Er-Rukeiyat, How good is patience in afflictions!]. (IAar, O, TA.) عُرُفٌ: see عُرْفٌ, in three places.

عَرْفَةٌ A question, or questioning, respecting a subject of information, in order to know it; (K, * TA;) as also ↓ عِرْفَةٌ. (K, TA.) A2: See also عَرْفٌ.

A3: Also A purulent pustule that comes forth in the whiteness [or palm] of the hand. (ISk, S, O, K.) عُرْفَةٌ: see عُرْفٌ, latter half. b2: Also An open, elongated, tract of land, producing plants, or herbage. (O, K.) b3: Also, (O, K,) and ↓ عُرْفٌ, (TA,) A limit (O, K, TA) between two things: (K:) [like أُرْفَةٌ:] pl. of the former عُرَفٌ. (O, K, TA.) عِرْفَةٌ [an inf. n.] I. q. مَعْرِفَةٌ. (O, K. [See 1, first sentence. In the O, it seems to be regarded as a simple subst.]) b2: See also عَرْفَةٌ.

يَوْمُ عَرَفَهَ The ninth day of [the month] ذُو الحِجَّة [when the pilgrims halt at عَرَفَات]: (S, Mgh, O, Msb, K:) the latter word being without tenween, (S, O,) imperfectly decl., because it is of the fem. gender and a proper name, (Msb,) and not admitting the art. ال. (S, O, Msb.) b2: See also the next paragraph.

عَرَفَاتٌ The place [or mountain] where the pilgrims halt (Mgh, O, Msb, K) on the day of عَرَفَة [above mentioned], (O, K,) [described by Burckhardt as a granite hill, about a mile, or a mile and a half, in circuit, with sloping sides, rising nearly two hundred feet above the level of the adjacent plain,] said to be nine miles, (Msb,) or twelve miles, (K,) from Mekkeh; (Msb, K;) said by J to be a place in, or at, Minè, but incorrectly, (K, TA,) unless thereby be meant near Minè; (TA;) also called by some ↓ عَرَفَةُ; (Mgh, Msb;) but the saying نَزَلْنَا عَرَفَةَ, (S, O, K,) or نَزَلْتُ بِعَرَفَةَ, (Msb,) [We, or I, alighted at عَرَفَة,] is like a post-classical phrase, (S, O, K,) and (S, O) it is said to be (Msb) not genuine Arabic: (S, O, Msb:) عَرَفَاتٌ is a [proper] name in the pl. form, and therefore is not itself pluralized: (S, O, K:) it is as though the term عَرَفَةٌ applied to every distinct portion thereof: (TA:) as Fr says, it has, correctly, no sing.; (S, O;) and it is determinate as denoting a particular place; (Sb, S, O, K, TA;) and therefore not admitting the article ال; (Sb, TA;) differing from الزَّيْدُونَ [because this is a proper name common to a number of persons]: you say, هٰؤُلَآءِ عَرَفَاتٌ حَسَنَةً [lit. These are 'Arafát, in a good state], putting the epithet in the accus. case because it is indeterminate [as a denotative of state, like مُصَدِّقًا in the saying وَهُوَ الحَقُّ مُصَدِّقًا لِمَا مَعَهُمْ, in the Kur ii. 85]: (S, O:) it is decl. (مَصْرُوفَةٌ [more properly مُعْرَبَةٌ]) because the ت is equivalent to the ى and و in مُسْلِمِينَ and مُسْلِمُونَ, (S, O, K,) the tenween becoming equivalent to the ن, therefore, being used as a proper name, it is left in its original state, like as is مُسْلِمُونَ when used as a proper name: (Akh, S, O, K:) [i. e.,] it is decl. in the manner of مُسْلِمَاتٌ and مُؤْمِنَاتٌ, the tenween being like that which corresponds to the masc. pl. termination ن, not the tenween of perfect declinability, because it is a proper name and of the fem. gender, wherefore it does not admit the article ال. (Msb.) عَرَفَاتٌ was thus named because Adam and Eve knew each other (تَعَارَفَا) there (IF, O, K, TA) after their descent from Paradise: (TA:) or because Gabriel, when he taught Abraham the rites and ceremonies of the pilgrimage, said to him “ Hast thou known? ” (أَعَرَفْتَ), (O, K,) and he replied “ I have known ” (عَرَفْتُ): (K:) or because it is a place sanctified and magnified, as though it were rendered fragrant (عُرِّفَ i. e. طُيِّبَ): (O, K:) or because the people know one another (يَتَعَارَفُونَ) there: or, accord. to Er-Rághib, because of men's making themselves known (نِتَعَرُّفِ العِبَادِ) there by religious services and prayers. (TA.) عُرْفِىٌّ Of, or relating to, العُرْفُ as meaning the commonly-known or commonly-received or conventional language, or common parlance, or common usage. Hence حَقِيقَةٌ عُرْفِيَّةٌ and مَجَازٌ عُرْفِىٌّ, expl. in arts. حق and جوز.]

عَرَفِىٌّ Of, or relating to, عَرَفَات. (O, K.) عِرِفَّانٌ, (O, K,) accord. to Th, A man (O) who acknowledges, or confesses, a thing, and directs to it, or indicates it; (O, K;) thus expl. as an epithet, though Sb mentions his not knowing it as an epithet; (O;) occurring in a poem of Er-Rá'ee, and expl. by some as the name of a companion of his: (O, K: *) and عُرُفَّانٌ signifies the same; (K;) but this is said by Sb to be a word transferred from the category of proper names. (O.) A2: Also the latter, (O,) or both, (K,) A small creeping thing that is found in the sands of 'Álij and of Ed-Dahnà: (O, K:) or a large [sort of locust, or the like, such as is termed] جُنْدَب, resembling the جَرَادَة, (AHn, K, TA,) having a crest (لَهُ عُرْفٌ), (AHn, TA,) not found save upon [one or the other of two species of plants, i. e.] a رِمْثَة or an عُنْظُوَانَة: (AHn, K, TA:) but AHn mentions only the latter form of the word, عُرُفَّانٌ. (TA.) عَرُوفٌ: see عَارِفٌ, in two places.

عَرِيفٌ: see عَارِفٌ, first sentence. b2: [Hence,] One who knows his companions: pl. عُرَفَآءُ. (O, K.) The chief, or head, (Mgh, K, TA,) of a people, or party; (K, TA;) because he knows the states, or conditions, of those over whom he acts as such; (Mgh;) or because he is known as such [so that it is from the same word in the last of the senses assigned to it in this paragraph]; (K;) or because of his acquaintance with the ordering, or management, of them: (TA:) or the نَقِيب [or intendant, superintendent, overseer, or inspector, who takes cognizance of, and is responsible for, the actions of a people], who is below the رَئِيس: (S, O, K:) or the manager and superintendent of the affairs, who acquaints himself with the circumstances, or a tribe, or of a company of men; of the measure فَعِيلٌ in the sense of the measure فَاعِلٌ: (IAth, TA:) or the orderer, or manager, of the affairs of a people, or party; as also ↓ عَارِفٌ: (Msb:) pl. as above: (S, IAth, Msb:) it is said that he is over a few persons, and the مَنْكِب is over five عُرَقَآء, then the أَمِير is over these. (Msb.) It is said in a trad. that the عُرَفَآء are in Hell, as a caution against undertaking the office of chief, or head, on account of the trial that is therein; for when one does not perform the duty thereof, he sins, and deserves punishment. (TA.) b3: [It is now used as meaning A monitor in a school, who hears the lessons of the other scholars.]

A2: See also مَعْرُوفٌ, with which it is syn. عِرَافَةٌ The holding, and the exercising, of the office of عَرِيف. (S, Mgh, * O, Msb, * K. [An inf. n.: see 1, in the middle of the latter half.]) عَرُوفَةٌ: see عَارِفٌ, in two places.

عَرَّافٌ A كَاهِن [or diviner]: (S, O, Msb, K:) or the former is one who informs of the past, and the latter is one who informs of the past and of the future: (Msb:) or, accord. to Er-Rághib, [but the converse of his explanation seems to be that which is correct,] the former is one who informs of future events, and the latter is one who informs of past events. (TA.) Hence the saying of the Prophet, that whoso comes to an عرّاف and asks him respecting a thing, prayer of forty nights will not be accepted from him. (O.) b2: and (Msb) An astrologer, (IAth, Mgh, Msb,) who lays claim to the knowledge of hidden, or invisible, things, (IAth, Mgh,) which God has made to belong exclusively to Himself: (IAth:) and this is [said to be] meant in the trad. above mentioned. (Mgh.) b3: And A physician. (S, O, K.) b4: and One who smells [for يسم I read يَشُمُّ] the ground, and thus knows the places of water, and knows in what country, or district, he is. (ISh, in TA, art. حزى.) عَارِفٌ and ↓ عَرِيفٌ are syn., (S, O, K,) like عَالِمٌ and عَلِيمٌ, (S, O,) signifying Knowing; [&c., agreeably with the explanations of the verb in the first quarter of the first paragraph of this art.;] as also ↓ عَرُوفَةٌ, (S, O, K,) but in an intensive sense, which is denoted by the ة, (S, O, TA,) meaning [knowing, &c., much, or well; or] knowing, or acquainted with, affairs, and not failing to know [or recognise] one that has been seen once; (TA;) as in the phrase, بِالأُمُوِر ↓ رَجُلٌ عَرُوفَةٌ [A man much, or well, acquainted with affairs]. (S, O.) b2: For the first, see also عَرِيفٌ. b3: It also signifies particularly [Skilled in divine things;] possessing knowledge of God, and of his kingdom, and of the way of dealing well with Him. (TA.) b4: See also مَعْرُوفٌ.

A2: Also, the first, [Patient; or] very patient, or having much patience; syn. صَبُورٌ; (AO, S, O, K;) and so ↓ عَرُوفٌ; (S, O, K;) of which latter the pl. is عُرْفٌ. (K.) One says, أُصِيبَ فُلَانٌ فَوُجِدَ عَارِفًا [Such a one was smitten, or afflicted, and was found to be patient]. (S, O.) And حَبَسْتُ نَفْسًا عَارِفَةً, meaning صَابِرَةً [i. e. I restrained a patient soul, or mind]: (O, TA:) like the phrase صَبَرْتُ عَارِفَةً in a verse of 'Antarah [cited in the first paragraph of art. صبر]. (S, * O.) And ↓ نَفْسٌ عَرُوفٌ means [A soul, or mind,] enduring; very patient; that endures an event, or a case, when made to experience it. (TA.) عَوَارِفُ [is pl. of عَارِفَةٌ, and] means Patient she-camels. (IB, TA.) عَارِفَةٌ as a subst.; pl. عَوَارِفُ: see عُرْفٌ, first quarter, in two places.

عُوَيْرِفٌ [dim. of عَارِفٌ, i. e. signifying One possessing little knowledge &c.]. One says of him in whom is a sin, or crime, مَا هُوَ إِلَّا عُوَيْرِفٌ [He is none other than one possessing little knowledge]. (TA.) أَعْرَفَ is mentioned in “ the Book ” of Sb as used in the phrase هٰذَا أَعْرَفَ مِنْ هٰذَا [meaning This is more known than this]: irregularly formed from مَعْرُوفٌ, not from عَارِفٌ. (ISd, TA.) A2: Also A thing having what is termed عُرْف [i. e. a mane, or the like]: (S, O, K:) fem. عَرْفَآءُ: pl., masc. and fem., عُرْفٌ. (K.) It is applied to a horse, (Mgh, K, TA,) meaning Having a full mane, or much hair of the mane. (Mgh, TA.) And to a serpent (O, K) such as is termed شَيْطَان [which is described as having an عُرْف]. (O.) And the fem. is applied to a she-camel, (K, TA,) meaning High in the hump: or resembling the male: or long in her عُرْف [or mane]: (TA:) or having what resembles the عُرْف by reason of her fatness: or having, upon her neck, fur like the عُرْف. (Ham p. 611.) b2: The fem. is also used as meaning The ضَبُع [i. e. hyena, or female hyena], because of the abundance of its hair (S, O, K, TA) of the neck, (O, K, TA,) or because of the length of its عُرْف. (TA.) b3: and one says سَنَامٌ أَعْرَفُ A long, or tall, camel's hump, having an عُرْف. (TA.) And جَبَلٌ أَعْرَفُ (assumed tropical:) A mountain having what resembles the عُرْف. (TA.) And قُلَّةٌ عَرْفَآءُ (tropical:) A high mountain-top. (TA.) And حَزْنٌ أَعْرَفُ (assumed tropical:) High rugged ground. (TA.) مَعْرَفٌ (S, O, K [in one of my copies of the S written مُعَرَّفٌ]) and مَعْرِفٌ also (Ham p. 47) sing. of مَعَارِفُ, which means The face [and faces], and any part thereof that appears; as in the saying اِمْرَأَةٌ حَسَنَةُ المَعَارِفِ [A woman beautiful in the face, or in the parts thereof that appear]; (S, O, K;) because the person is known thereby: (TA:) or, as some say, no sing. of it is known: (Har p. 146:) and some say that it signifies the beauties, or beautiful parts, of the face. (TA.) Er-Rá'ee says, مُتَلَفِّمِينَ عَلَى مَعَارِفِنَا نَثْنِى لَهُنَّ حَوَاشِىَ العَصْبِ [Muffling our faces, or the parts thereof that appeared, we fold, or folding, to them the selvages of the عَصْب (a sort of garment).] (S, O: but the latter has مُتَلَثِّمِينَ.) And one says, حَيَّا اللّٰهُ المَعَارِفَ, meaning [May God preserve] the faces. (O, K.) And قَدْ هَاجَتْ مَعَارِفُ فُلَانٍ The features of such a one, whereby he was known to me, have withered, like as the plant withers: said of a man who has turned away, from the speaker, his love, or affection. (TA.) And هُوَ مِنَ المَعَارِفِ He is of those who are known; [or of those who are acquaintances;] (O, K;) as though meaning مِنْ ذَوِى المَعَارِفِ, i. e. of those having faces [whereby they are known]: (O:) or مَعَارِفُ الرَّجُلِ meansThose who are entitled to the man's love, or affection, and with whom he has acquaintance; [and simply the acquaintances of the man;] and is pl. of ↓ مَعْرِفَةٌ. (Har p. 146.) مَعَارِفُ الأَرْضِ meansThe faces, and known parts, of the land. (TA.) مَعْرَفَةٌ The place [or part] upon which grows the عُرْف [or mane]; (S, Mgh;) the place of the عُرْف of the horse, (O, K, TA,) from the forelock to the withers: or the flesh upon which grows the عُرْف. (TA.) But the phrase الأَخْذُ مِنْ مَعْرَفَةِ الدَّابَّةِ means The cutting [or taking] of somewhat from the عُرْف of the beast. (Mgh.) مَعْرِفَةٌ a subst. [signifying Knowledge, cognition, cognizance, or acquaintance; &c.: as such having for its pl. مَعَارِفُ, meaning sorts of knowledge:] from عَرَفَهُ signifying as expl. in the beginning of this art.: (Msb:) or an inf. n. therefrom. (S, O, K.) b2: See also مَعْرَفٌ, last sentence but one. b3: [In grammar, A determinate noun; opposed to نَكِرَةٌ.]

مُعَرَّفٌ [pass. part. n. of 2, q. v.

A2: ] Food rendered fragrant. (TA.) A3: And Food put part upon part [app. so that the uppermost portion resembles a mane or the like (عُرْف)]. (TA.) [Golius, as on the authority of J, and hence Freytag, assign to it a meaning belonging to مُعَرَّقٌ.]

A4: Also The place of halting [of the pilgrims] at عَرَفَات. (S, O, K.) b2: And in a trad. of I'Ab, the phrase بَعْدَ المُعَرَّفِ occurs as meaning After the halting at عَرَفَة [or rather عَرَفَات]. (TA.) مَعْرُوفٌ [Known: and particularly well, or commonly, known]. أَمْرٌ مَعْرُوفٌ and ↓ عَارِفٌ, (O, Msb, K, TA,) accord. to Lth, but the latter is disapproved by Az, having not been heard by him on any other authority than that of Lth, (O, TA,) [though there are other similar instances well known, (see أَمْرٌ, and دَافِقٌ,)] signify the same [i. e. A known affair or event &c.]; (O, Msb, K, TA;) as also ↓ عَرِيفٌ. (Msb, TA,) b2: [Hence, in grammar, The active voice; opposed to مَجْهُولٌ.]

b3: See also عُرْفٌ, former half, in seven places.

A2: أَرْضٌ مَعْرُوفَهٌ Land having a fragrant عَرْف [or odour]. (TA.) A3: رَجُلٌ مَعْرُوفٌ A man having a purulent pustule, termed عَرْفَة, come forth in the whiteness [or palm] of his hand. (S.) مُعْتَرِفٌ [part. n. of 8, q. v.]. 'Omar is related to have said, اُطْرُدُوا المُعْتَرِفِينَ, meaning [Drive ye away] those who inform against themselves [or confess or acknowledge the commission] of something for which castigation is due to them; as though he disliked their doing so, and desired that people should protect them. (TA.) مُتَعَارَفٌ [applied to language, or a phrase, or word, means Known by common conventional usage]. One says, هُوَ مُتَعَارَفٌ بَيْنَهُمْ It is known [by common conventional usage] among them. (MA. See also عُرْفٌ.])
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