William Edward Lane, Arabic-English Lexicon مدُّ القَامُوس، معجم عربي إنجليزي لوليام إدوارد لَيْن

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الصفحة الرئيسية للكتاب
Number of entries in this book
عدد المواضيع في هذا الكتاب 4952
2983. غزو11 2984. غسق15 2985. غسل18 2986. غسم7 2987. غش7 2988. غشم132989. غص6 2990. غصب17 2991. غصن12 2992. غض5 2993. غضب17 2994. غضر13 2995. غضرف7 2996. غضف13 2997. غضفر8 2998. غضن12 2999. غضو2 3000. غط5 3001. غطرف14 3002. غطس12 3003. غطش15 3004. غطف12 3005. غطل8 3006. غطم8 3007. غطمط5 3008. غف4 3009. غفر20 3010. غفص10 3011. غفل18 3012. غفو8 3013. غل6 3014. غلب19 3015. غلت15 3016. غلث8 3017. غلس14 3018. غلصم11 3019. غلط14 3020. غلظ16 3021. غلف18 3022. غلق18 3023. غلم17 3024. غلو12 3025. غلى5 3026. غم6 3027. غمت7 3028. غمد16 3029. غمر18 3030. غمز14 3031. غمس15 3032. غمص12 3033. غمض17 3034. غمط14 3035. غمل10 3036. غمن8 3037. غمه1 3038. غمى5 3039. غن5 3040. غنج10 3041. غندب5 3042. غنظ10 3043. غنم17 3044. غنو4 3045. غنى8 3046. غهب13 3047. غو2 3048. غوث14 3049. غوج6 3050. غور19 3051. غوص15 3052. غوط18 3053. غوغ8 3054. غول20 3055. غوى9 3056. غيب17 3057. غيث13 3058. غيد8 3059. غير17 3060. غيض21 3061. غيط5 3062. غيظ14 3063. غيف11 3064. غيق6 3065. غيل21 3066. غيم12 3067. غين13 3068. ف9 3069. فأ1 3070. فأت6 3071. فأد11 3072. فأر13 3073. فأس12 3074. فأل10 3075. فأم11 3076. فأو7 3077. فا4 3078. فالوذ2 3079. فاوانيا1 3080. فت3 3081. فتأ11 3082. فتح18 Prev. 100
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غشم

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غشم

1 غَشْمٌ signifies The acting, or treating, wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically: (S, K:) or the taking another's property wrongfully, &c., or by force: and the taking a course, in journeying [&c.], at random, without direction and without knowledge. (JK.) One says of a governor, غَشَمَ الرَّعِيَّةَ, aor. غَشِمَ, [accord. to the TK, the aor. of the verb in the sense here following is غَشُمَ, but this I think a mistake,] inf. n. غَشْمٌ, He struck, or beat, with vehemence, the people under his government, wrongfully, unjustly, injuriously, or tyrannically, and took [from them] what he could. (TA.) And غَشَمَ النَّاسَ He asked whom he could of the people. (Z, TA.) And غَشَمَ الأُمُورَ He performed affairs, or the affairs, [in a random manner,] confusedly, without discrimination. (Ham p. 37: by implication.) b2: And غَشَمَهُ, aor. غَشِمَ, He smeared him [i. e. a camel] with tar so that he left nothing [or no part of him] without tar, pouring it upon what was sound thereof and what was diseased thereof: and ↓ غَشَمٌ [perhaps as an inf. n., but accord. to the TK it is a simple subst., and the inf. n. is غَشْمٌ,] signifies the act of so smearing. (K.) b3: And غَشَمَ (tropical:) He collected firewood by night, cutting whatever he could get, without consideration, (K, TA,) or, as in the A, without discrimination. (TA.) غَشَمٌ: see the preceding paragraph.

A2: Also Blackness [of night: app. a dial. var. of غَسَمٌ; or, perhaps, a mistranscription]. (Ham p. 163.) غَشُومٌ A man who strikes, or beats, people vehemently, [and wrongfully, (see 1,)] and takes [from them] everything that he can get; as also ↓ غَشَّامٌ and ↓ غَاشِمٌ [except that the first and second are app. intensive epithets and the last is a simple part. n.]: and it is likewise applied to a fem., as, for ex., to a hand (يَدٌ): and to a striking, or beating, (ضَرْبٌ,) [app. as meaning wrongful,] as is also ↓ غَشَمْشَمٌ. (TA.) [One says,] الحَرْبُ غَشُومٌ [War is wrongful], because it reaches other than the committer of a crime, or an offence deserving punishment. (S.) b2: Also A she-camel that will not be turned back from her course, or way. (R, TA.) غَشِيمٌ, meaning [Ignorant of affairs,] not knowing anything, is a word of the vulgar. (TA.) غُشُومِيَّهٌ, meaning Ignorance of affairs, is a word of the vulgar, like that next preceding. (TA.) غَشَّامٌ: see غَشُومٌ.

غَاشِمٌ: see غَشُومٌ.

غَشَمْشَمٌ: see مِغْشَمٌ. Accord. to some, it signifies One who acts with much wrongfulness, injustice, injuriousness, or tyranny. (Ham p. 104.) b2: نَاقَةٌ غَشَمْشَمَةٌ A she-camel strong, resisting, or indomitable, in spirit. (IJ, TA.) And غَشَمْشَمٌ is applied to a he-camel as meaning هَائِجٌ [i. e. Excited by lust]. (Meyd in explanation of the prov. here following.) b3: غَشَمْشَمٌ يُغَشِّى الشَّجَرَ, i. e. This, or it or he, is a torrent [wild in its course,] that overwhelms the trees, so that it crushes them and uproots them, سَيْلٌ preceded by هٰذَا or هُوَ being meant to be supplied, is a prov. applied to a man who cares not what wrong he does. (Meyd.) b4: See also غَشُومٌ.

إِنَّهُ لَذُو غَشَمْشَمَةٍ and غَشَمْشَمِيَّةٍ Verily he is one who possesses boldness, or daringness, and penetrative energy. (K.) أَغْشَمُ [More, and most, wrongful, unjust, injurious, or tyrannical: &c.: see 1]. أَغْشَمُ مِنَ السَّيْلِ [More wild in course than the torrent] is a proverb. (Meyd.) A2: IAar cites a verse in which it is applied to a plant as meaning Dry and old; but accord. to one relation of that verse, the word is أَعْشَم. (TA.) مِغْشَمٌ One who goes at random, heedlessly, or in a headlong manner, without consideration, whom nothing will turn from that which he desires, (S, K,) by reason of his courage; (S;) as also ↓ غَشَمْشَمٌ: (S, K:) or, accord. to Aboo-Riyásh, one who performs affairs [in a random manner,] confusedly, without discrimination: or, as some say, one who, when the road is unapparent to him, goes at random, without direction and without knowledge. (Ham p. 37.) غشو and غشى 1 غَشِيَهُ, aor. يَغْشَى, inf. n. غَشَاوَةٌ, It covered, or concealed, him, or it; (TA;) as also ↓ تغشّاهُ. (MA.) And one says, غَشَانِى اللَّيْلُ, i. e. غَشِيَنِى

[The night covered me, or concealed me: or the meaning may be that which next follows]. (JK.) b2: غَشِيَهُ, (K, TA,) aor. and inf. n. as above, (TA,) is said of an event (أَمْرٌ), [and of heat, (S and K in art. دغم,) and of cold, (K in that art.,) and of an affection of the mind or body, and of various things, sometimes in like manner of a man, and of a company of men,] in a similar sense; and so ↓ تغشّاهُ; (K, TA;) both signifying It came upon, [or invaded, so as to surprise, and so as to over-whelm, properly meaning] as a thing that covered, him, or it. (K, * TA.) Hence, in the Kur [liii. 16], إِذْ يَغْشَى السِّدْرَةَ مَا يَغْشَى [When there was coming upon the lote-tree so as to cover it, or overspread it, what was so coming]. (TA.) And in the same [xx. 81], فَغَشِيَهُمْ مِنَ الْيَمِّ مَا غَشِيَهُمْ [and there came upon them so as to overwhelm them, of the sea, what so came upon them]. (TA.) and in the same [viii. 11], إِذْ يَغْشَاكُمُ [followed by االنُّعَاسُ, i. e. When it (drowsiness) was coming upon you, or overcoming you]; accord. to one reading; other readings being يُغْشِيكُمُ and يُغَشِّيكُمُ [followed by النُّعَاسَ]. (TA.) See also غَاشِيَةٌ, in three places. b3: [A somewhat similar signification of غَشِيَهُ will be found below.] b4: One says of the night, يَغْشَى بِظُلْمَتِهِ كُلَّ مَا بَيْنَ السَّمَآءِ وَالأَرْضِ [It covers, or conceals, with its darkness, everything that is between the heaven and the earth]. (Jel in xcii. 1.) And [hence it is said that] غَشِىَ اللَّيْلُ means The night was, or became, dark; as also ↓ اغشى. (Msb, TA.) b5: [And غَشِيَهُ, and غَشِىَ بَصَرَهُ and ↓ غشّاهُ, signify It, i. e. light (ضَوْءٌ), came upon him, and upon his eye, with an overpowering effect, so as to obscure, or dazzle, his sight.] b6: غَشِيَهُ also signifies جَآءَهُ (S) or أَتَاهُ (Mgh, Msb, K) [which have two meanings, i. e. He came to him, and he did it; both, perhaps, here meant, for both are well-known meanings of غَشِيَهُ]; and, thus used, the aor. is as above, (TA,) and the inf. n. is غَشَيَانٌ, (S, TA,) or غِشْيَانٌ, (so in one of my copies of the S,) or the subst. is ↓ غِشْيَانٌ, (Msb,) with kesr, (Mgh, Msb,) syn. with إِتْيَانٌ. (Mgh.) You say, غَشِىَ فُلَانًا He came to such a one; syn. أَتَاهُ; as also غَشَاهُ, aor. يَغْشُوهُ. (K.) b7: [Hence,] غَشِيَهَا, (S, MA, Msb, K,) inf. n. غَشَيَانٌ or غِشْيَانٌ, (accord. to different copies of the S,) or the latter and غَشْىٌ, (MA,) or ↓ غِشْيَانٌ is the subst. in this case also, (Msb,) and syn. with إِتْيَانٌ, metonymically used in the sense of جِمَاعٌ, (Mgh, Msb,) (tropical:) He compressed her; (S, MA, Msb, K;) namely, a woman; (MA, K;) as also ↓ تغشّاها. (MA, Msb, TA.) b8: And غَشِىَ

إِلَيْهِ مَحْجَرًا He did to him (أَتَى إِلَيْهِ) a forbidden action. (TA in art. حجر.) [Hence,] ↓ غِشْيَانُ المَحَارِمِ [The doing of forbidden things]. (Mgh and Msb and K in art. رهق.) And غَشِىَ الشَّىْءَ He occupied himself with the thing, engaged in it, or personally managed or conducted it; syn. لَابَسَهُ and بَاشَرَهُ. (JM.) [And ↓ تغشّى has a similar meaning; for it is said that] التَّغَشِّى and الغَشْىُ primarily signify الإِتْيَانُ and المُلَابَسَةُ: and they took an extended range in using the former, so that one said, بِالعَدْلِ ↓ تَغَشَّاهُمْ or بِالْجَوْرِ [app. meaning He ruled them with equity or with injustice]. (Ham p. 27.) [And one says, يَغْشَى

الحُرُوبَ (see Ham p. 27), meaning He plunges into wars, or battles: see مُغَامِسٌ, and its verb.]

b9: One says also, غَشِيَهُ بِالسَّوْطِ, (K, in which it is said to be like رَضِيَهُ, and so accord. to some copies of the S, the phrase in these being غَشِيَتُ الرَّجُلَ بِالسَّوْطِ,) or بِهِ ↓ غَشَّاهُ, (accord. to other copies of the S, the verb in these being written غَشَّيْتُ, and thus accord. to an explanation of قَنَّعَ رَأْسَهُ بِالسَّوْطِ in art. قنع in the K,) He struck him (i. e. a man, S) with the whip; he flogged him. (S, K.) A2: غُشِىَ عَلَيْهِ, (S, MA, Mgh, Msb, K,) inf. n. غَشْىٌ, (S, Mgh, * K,) or غُشْىٌ, (MA,) or both, (Msb,) and غَشَيَانٌ, (K, TA, and so in some copies of the S,) or غِشْيَانٌ, (so in other copies of the S,) and ↓ غَشْيَةٌ, (S, Mgh,) or this last is an inf. n. of un., (Msb,) or it is the subst., (K,) He swooned, i. e. became senseless: (MA, PS:) or i. q. أُغْمِىَ عَلَيْهِ [q. v.]: (K, TA:) or الغَشْىُ, or الغُشْىُ, is a state of inertness (تَعَطُّل, Mgh, Msb) of the motive and sensitive faculties, (Mgh,) or of the motive faculties and of the sensitive will, (Msb,) on account of the weakness of the heart, (Mgh, Msb,) and the soul's becoming drawn together thereto by a cause that suppresses it (يُخْفِيهِ) within so that it finds not a place of passage, and of the causes thereof is a strangling [or stifling], or hurtful, cold repletion, or vehement hunger, (Mgh,) or vehement pain, (Mgh, Msb,) or cold, or excessive hunger, (Msb,) or an evil affection in some associate, or participating, organ, such as the heart and the stomach: (Mgh:) some say that it is the same as الإِغْمَآءُ [for which see its proper art.]; (Mgh, Msb;) thus say the scholastic theologians: (Mgh:) others (the physicians and the lawyers, Mgh) make a difference between these two terms. (Mgh, Msb.) 2 غَشَّيْتُ الشَىْءَ, (S, Msb,) inf. n. تَغْشِيَةٌ, (S,) I covered the thing; put a cover, or covering, upon it, or over it. (S, Msb.) One says, غَشَّى

اللّٰهُ عَلَى بَصَرِهِ, inf. n. as above; and ↓ اغشى; (K, TA;) i. e. God put a covering upon, or over, his eyes. (TA.) And hence, (TA,) it is said in the Kur [xxxvi. 8], فَهُمْ لَا يُبْصِرُونَ ↓ فَأَغْشَيْنَاهُمْ and we have put a covering over them [so that they shall not see]. (S, TA.) b2: [See a usage of the inf. n. voce شِينٌ.] b3: غشّاهُ said of light; see 1, former half. b4: See also 4. b5: غشّاهُ بِالسَّوْطِ: see 1, latter half. b6: One says also, غَشَّيْتُهُ سَيْفًا, or سَوْطًا, [in my original غشيته, without any syll. sign, but app. as I have written, for I do not find any instance of غَشِىَ as doubly trans., meaning I equipped him with a sword, or a whip,] like the saying كَسَوْتُهُ سَيْفًا, or عَمَّمْتُهُ. (TA.) 4 اغشاهُ إِيَّاهُ and ↓ غشّاهُ He made it to cover it; or to be a cover, or covering, upon it, or over it. (MA, * TK, and Bd * and Jel * in vii. 52, &c.) b2: And [hence,] both signify He made it, i. e. an event (أَمْر), to come upon, [or invade, so as to surprise, or so as to overwhelm, properly meaning] as a thing that covered, him, or it. (K, * TA,) Both of these verbs are used in this sense in the Kur-án accord. to different readings in vii. 52 and xiii. 3, and likewise (as mentioned in the first paragraph of this art., q. v.,) in viii. 11. (TA.) b3: Also, the former, He made him, or it, to come to him. (S, MA, TA.) b4: See also 2, in two places. b5: [Hence,] اغشى اللَّيْلُ: see 1, former half.5 تَ1َ2َّ3َ see 10: b2: and see also 1, first and third sentences: b3: and again, near the middle, in three places.10 استغشى ثَوْبَهُ, (T, K, [agreeably with phrases in the Kur xi. 6 and lxxi. 6,]) and (K) بِثَوْبِهِ, (S, K,) and بِهِ ↓ تغشّى, (S,) [see an ex. of the latter verb in a verse of El-Khansà cited in the first paragraph of art. رعى, where it is trans. without a preposition,] He covered himself with his garment (S, K) in order that he might not see nor hear: (K: [in the CK, يُسْمَعَ and يُرَى are put for يَسْمَعَ and يَرَى:]) accord. to Er-Rághib, اِسْتَغْشَوْا ثِيَابَهُمْ means they put their garments as a covering over their ears; and is a phrase denoting the refusing to hearken; or, as some say, an allusion to running, like the phrase شَمَّرَ ذَيْلًا, and أَلْقَى ثَوْبَهُ. (TA.) غَشًا The whiteness of the head [or face], of a horse and of other animals, denoted by the epithet أَغْشَى [q. v.]. (S.) غَشْوٌ The نَبِق [generally meaning the fruit of the lote-tree called سِدْر; but sometimes the tree thus called itself]: (K:) accord to the M, [the n. un.] غَشْوَةٌ signifies a سِدْرَة. (TA.) غَشْوَةٌ and غِشْوَةٌ and غُشْوَةٌ: see غِشَاوَةٌ.

غَشْيَةٌ an inf. n. of the verb in the phrase غُشِىَ عَلَيْهِ, (S, Mgh,) or the subst, thereof, (K,) or the inf. n. un. thereof [signifying A swoon]. (Msb.) See 1, last sentence. b2: غَشْيَةُ المَوْتِ is The clouding (lit. covering) of the understanding that befalls a man on the occasion of death. (TA.) b3: and غَشْيَةُ حُمَّى signifies A touch, or slight attack, of fever. (TA.) غُشْيَةٌ: see غِشَاوَةٌ.

غِشْيَانٌ: see 1, near the middle, in three places.

غِشَآءٌ A cover, or covering; syn. غِطَآءٌ: (S, Msb:) or it differs from the غِطَآء in being of clothing or the like: (TA in art. غطو) and غِشَاوَةٌ [q. v.] signifies the same: (Msb;) [the pl. of the former is أَغْشِيَةٌ and أَغْشَآءٌ; the former regular; and the latter, (which occurs in this art. in the TA in an explanation of غَوَاشٍ, pl. of غَاشِيَةٌ.) like آدَامٌ as pl. of إِدَامٌ.] The غِشَآء of the heart is The cover, or covering, thereof; (K, TA;) the قَمِيص thereof, likewise mentioned in the K as being called the ↓ غَاشِيَة; a covering of skin, (i. e. the pericardium,] the removal of which therefrom causes death; and also called the ↓ غِشَاوَة, this being expl. as meaning the skin of the heart: (TA:) and so of the horse's saddle; (K, TA;) which is a covering of skin or other material: (TA:) [see also غَاشِيَةٌ:] and so of the sword; (K, TA.) which is its غِلَاف [a term applied to its scabbard, and also to a case, or covering, enclosing the scabbard, or enclosing the scabbard with its appertenances] (TA;) and so of other things. (K.) غِشَاوَةٌ (S, ISd, K) and غَشَاوَةٌ and غُشَاوَةٌ (ISd, K) and ↓ غَشْوَةٌ and غِشْوَةٌ and غُشْوَةٌ (S, K) and ↓ غَاشِيَةٌ and ↓ غُشْيَةٌ and ↓ غُشَايَةٌ and غِشَايَةٌ (K) signify A covering upon the eyes (S, K) and upon the heart: (K:) you say, عَلَى بَصَرِهِ غِشَاوَةٌ &c. [Upon his eyes is a covering, or film, app. used only in a tropical sense], (S, K,) and عَلَى قَلْبِهِ [upon his heart], (K:) thus the first of these words signifies. in relation to the eyes, in the Kur [ii. 6 and] xlv. 22, in relation to the heart, Az says that it is a [sort of] covering of rust (مِنْ طَبَعٍ [also termed رَيْن]). (TA.) See also غِشَآءٌ, in two places.

غُشَايَةٌ and غِشَايَةٌ: see the next preceding paragraph.

غَاشِيَةٌ: see غِشَآءٌ and غَوَاشٍ .غِشَاوَةٌ is its pl. (TA:) occurring in the Kur vii. 39, meaning أَغْمَآءٌ, (K, TA,) i. e. أَغْشَآءٌ [or Coverings, a pl. of غِشَآءٌ]. (TA.) b2: It is also [The covering, like غِشَآءٌ, q. v.], of the horse's saddle. (S.) b3: and (S,) of the [camel's saddle called] رَحْل, (K,) it is The iron that is above the مُؤَخَّرَة or [hinder part], (S, K, TA,) also called the دَامِغَة [q. v.]. (Az TA.) b4: Also The skin with which the جَفْن [or scabbard] of a sword is covered, from the lower part of its شَارِب [q. v.] to its نَعْل [or shoe of iron, or silver, at the lower end of the scabbard]: or the covering that is put upon the hilt, consisting of [the skins called] أَسْفَان [pl. of سَفَنٌ, q. v.]: (K. [for أَسْفَان, which is the reading in the M, some copies of the K have أَسْفَار:]) or the first part, of the sword, of what is next to thee [when holding the hilt]: and sometimes it signifies its غِمْد [or scabbard], also. (Ham p. 22.) b5: الغَاشِيَةُ (in the Kur lxxxviii. I, TA) means The resurrection; (S, K, TA;) because it will overwhelm (↓ تَغْشَى) with its terrors; (S, TA;) or because it will come upon mankind as a thing covering them, (↓ تَغْشَى

الخَلْقَ,) so as to include them universally: (TA:) and, (K, TA,) some say, (TA,) the fire of Hell); (K, TA;) because it will cover, or overspread, (↓ تَغْشَى,) the faces of the unbelievers. (TA.) (In like manner also,] غَاشِيَةٌ مِنَ العَذَابِ meansPunishment that is general, or universal, in its extent. (TA.) b6: And غَاشِيَةٌ signifies also A calamity, or misfortune. (TA.) b7: And A cer tain disease that attacks in the جَوْف [i. e. belly, or chest]. (As, S, K.) One says, رَمَاهُ اللّٰهُ بِغَاشِيَةٍ

[May God smite him, or afflict him, with a غَاشِيَة]. (As, S.) b8: Also Petitioners that come to one (K, TA) seeking, or demanding, or asking, gifts: (TA:) and visiters, and friends, that come to one time after time; (K, TA;) and that resort to one (TA:) a man's resorters; such as guests; and hangers-on, or seekers of favours; servants [or dependants]; and others. (Har pp. 95 and 467.) أَغْشَى, applied to a horse, (S, K,) and to other than a horse, (S,) Whose whole head, as distinct from his body, is white; like أَرْخَمُ: (S:) or whose face is covered by whiteness: (K:) or having a blaze covering his face, and wide: (M, TA;) fem. غَشْوَآءُ, applied to a goat. (S, K.) مَغْشِىٌّ عَلَيْهِ Swooning; i. e. senseless; (MA, PS;) having the affection denoted by the phrase غُشِىَ عَلَيْهِ [q. v.]. (S, MA, Mgh, Msb, K.)
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